USA: "Space Force"

Wehrtechnik & Rüstung, Sicherheit und Verteidigung außerhalb Europas
theoderich
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Re: USA: "Space Force"

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DOD Submits U.S. Space Force Proposal (1. März 2019)

https://www.defense.gov/Explore/News/Ar ... -proposal/


United States Space Force (February 2019)

https://media.defense.gov/2019/Mar/01/2 ... ERVIEW.PDF


STATEMENT OF
GENERAL TERRENCE J. O’SHAUGHNESSY, UNITED STATES AIR FORCE
COMMANDER
UNITED STATES NORTHERN COMMAND
AND
NORTH AMERICAN AEROSPACE DEFENSE COMMAND
BEFORE THE
SENATE ARMED SERVICES COMMITTEE
26 FEBRUARY 2019


https://www.armed-services.senate.gov/i ... -26-19.pdf


STATEMENT OF
JOHN E. HYTEN
COMMANDER
UNITED STATES STRATEGIC COMMAND
BEFORE THE
SENATE COMMITTEE ON ARMED SERVICES
26 FEBRUARY 2019


https://www.stratcom.mil/Portals/8/Docu ... 083230-307
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theoderich
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Re: USA: "Space Force"

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Pentagon officially stands up Space Development Agency, names first director
The Pentagon has formally stood up the Space Development Agency, and named its new director, according to a memo obtained by Defense News.

The memo, signed out by acting Defense Secretary Patrick Shanahan on March 12, immediately stood up the SDA as a new office under the direction of Under Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering Mike Griffin.

The office will be directed by Fred Kennedy, the current director of the Tactical Technology Office, which falls under the purview of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

Per his bio, Kennedy, a retired Air Force colonel, served as senior policy adviser for national security space and aviation in the National Security and International Affairs division of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy during the Obama administration.

“The SDA will define and monitor the Department’s future threat-driven space architecture and will accelerate the development and fielding of new military space capabilities necessary to ensure out technological and military advantage in space for national defense,” Shanahan wrote in the memo. “The SDA will unify and integrate efforts across the Department to define, develop and field the novel and innovative solutions necessary to outpace advancing threats.”

Per the document, the SDA will be responsible for guiding programmatic policy developments for next-generation military space capabilities that reside within the Defense Department. In essence, it will serve as the unifying office for the department on space acquisition.

The director will have special hiring authorities for civilian employees to bring in highly qualified experts and non-competitive short-term hires for up to 18 months.
While the SDA is independent for now, the plan is to eventually transfer it inside a stand-alone Space Force, something Shanahan said remains the long-term plan, writing: “Coordination of requirements and transition decisions will occur through the normal processes once SDA transfers to the U.S. Space Force. Until that time, the Department will evaluate additional consolidation of space development organization and management.”
https://www.defensenews.com/space/2019/ ... -director/

theoderich
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Re: USA: "Space Force"

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Update: India successfully tests anti-satellite missile system
India destroyed one of its own satellites in space on 27 March using a locally developed anti-satellite (ASAT) missile: a move that makes India the fourth country in the world to have developed and demonstrated such a capability after the US, Russia, and China.

The government’s Press Information Bureau (PIB) said in a statement issued that same day that the three-stage “Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD) Interceptor missile”, which was developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), was fired from the Dr A P J Abdul Kalam Island launch complex in the country’s eastern state of Odisha as part of ‘Mission Shakti’ (‘Strength’).

The weapon, which is part of a BMD programme that is currently under development, engaged the satellite in low-Earth orbit (LEO) in a ‘hit-to-kill’ mode, said the PIB, adding that the missile was equipped with two solid-propellant rocket boosters. Tracking data from sensors confirmed that the mission had “met all its objectives”.
Although the Indian government did not identify the target satellite, industry sources told Jane’s that the missile is believed to have destroyed one of the two DRDO-designed Earth-observation satellites – Microsat-TD and Microsat-R – that were launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) in 2018 and January 2019, respectively, and put into LEOs.
https://www.janes.com/article/87517/upd ... ile-system


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theoderich
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Registriert: So 29. Apr 2018, 18:13

Re: USA: "Space Force"

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Dieser Präsentation der Missile Defense Agency zufolge, plant das DoD mindestens seit Anfang 2016, etwa 2025 einen "Space-based Demonstrator" mit einer Laserwaffe in der Erdumlaufbahn zu platzieren:

http://hamaweb.org/presentations/2016/m ... atlock.pdf



https://www.facebook.com/DefenceMinIndi ... =3&theater
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theoderich
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Registriert: So 29. Apr 2018, 18:13

Re: USA: "Space Force"

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Documents reveal how the Space Force would launch in 90 days
According to Air Force planning documents obtained by Defense News, an “initial Space Force staff” will be ready to stand up within 90 days of the new branch’s formal establishment by law. The group will take over all planning work currently done by the Air Force, and it will hash out the finer details of the branch’s structure.

While the vast majority of the staff — about 151 people — will come from the Air Force, the other services will also transfer personnel: 24 from the Army, 14 from the Navy and Marine Corps, and nine from the Joint Staff, the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the intelligence community, the documents said.

The initial organizational construct, which was approved by then-Air Force Secretary Heather Wilson in May, resembles a flattened, condensed version of the headquarters structure used by the Joint Staff and military services.

Senior leadership includes an undersecretary of the Air Force for space, a Space Force chief of staff, a vice chief of staff, a senior enlisted adviser and a director of staff. Personnel and logistics functions will be grouped under an S1/4 office. Plans, programs and assessments fall under the S5/8/9 office. The largest office, the S2/3/6/10, will be responsible for intelligence, operations, information dominance and nuclear integration.
https://www.defensenews.com/digital-sho ... n-90-days/


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Assistant Secretary of Defense for Indo-Pacific Security Affairs Schriver Press Briefing on the 2019 Report on Military and Security Developments in China (3. Mai 2019)
Q: Another question.

April 9th, the secretary said that China has fielded an anti-satellite missile unit to an operational Chinese unit. I didn't see that mentioned anywhere in your report. Can you square the circle?

MR. SCHRIVER: Yeah.

We do talk about China's space development and their interests. I'm not going to talk about a specific milestone.

We've obviously seen them conduct a test in the past; an anti-satellite test, which resulted in the space debris that we're still all living with.

So I --

(CROSSTALK)

MR. SCHRIVER: Well, then it's still there.

Q: Okay.

MR. SCHRIVER: So I don't want to talk about a specific milestone. But we do address in the report China's interest in space and their modernization efforts. And we know they have a demonstrated capability in the past.
https://www.defense.gov/Newsroom/Transc ... ver-press/



India’s DRDO reveals additional details of recent ASAT missile test
Briefing the media on 6 April, DRDO head G Satheesh Reddy stated that the 13 m-high, three-stage interceptor missile, which was fitted with two solid-propellant rocket motor stages and a hit-to-kill capable ‘Kill Vehicle’ (KV), was employed to target the satellite under ‘Mission Shakti’ (Strength).

He said the KV’s onboard advanced terminal guidance system, which featured a strap-down (non-gimballed) imaging infrared (IIR) seeker and an inertial navigation system that used ring-laser gyroscopes (RLGs), detected and tracked the 740 kg Microsat-R Earth observation satellite at an altitude of 283 km in low-Earth orbit (LEO).

The DRDO-designed satellite had been specially launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) two months earlier for the ASAT missile test, which had been under planning since 2016 and had also undergone numerous simulation trials.

Reddy explained that after the two rocket motor stages had taken the ASAT missile to the required height and velocity, the nose tip heat shield was ejected and the IIR seeker, located within the very front of the nose, locked onto the target satellite, guiding the KV towards it at a “closing speed” – the velocity of the target and KV combined – of 10 km per second.

Corrections to the KV’s flight were made using a thrust-vector control (TVC) system comprising larger thrusters at the top of the KV’s rear cylindrical body at roughly its centre of gravity and smaller thrusters near the rear of the KV. Although the DRDO showed videography of the tested TVC system used for the KV, it is not clear whether the thrusters are liquid or solid propellant-based, but they are most likely the latter.

Within seconds, the missile hit the satellite with a 10 cm accuracy, Reddy said, comparable with the “best reported performance of ASAT missiles”.

He said the radar, data, and communication links of the DRDO-designed ballistic missile defence (BMD) system that were deployed across a wide ground span had effectively tracked the entire satellite interception by the ASAT missile.

“The ASAT missile’s guidance and control algorithm was developed to intercept satellites [at an altitude of more than] 1,000 km, but the mission was planned at the lowest possible orbit of 283 km, well below the orbit of other space objects to avoid the threat of debris,” said Reddy.

The interception, he stated, was “specially designed” to strike the satellite at an angle so as to ensure “minimal debris”.
Reddy said the ISRO had “deliberately” launched the target satellite into an orbit under 300 km to ensure that it remained about 120 km below the International Space Station (ISS).

“Some of the debris has already decayed,” the DRDO head said in response to US officials from NASA, who have claimed that ‘Mission Shakti’ has raised the danger of 200–300 pieces of debris from the targeted satellite striking the ISS by about 44%.
https://www.janes.com/article/87788/ind ... ssile-test
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theoderich
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Re: USA: "Space Force"

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NATO wappnet sich für Kriege im Weltraum

Die NATO wappnet sich für Kriege im Weltraum. Nach Informationen der dpa haben die 29 Bündnisstaaten heute beschlossen, das All zu einem eigenständigen Operationsgebiet zu erklären. Die Entscheidung soll morgen bei einem Außenministertreffen offiziell bekanntgegeben werden.
https://orf.at/#/stories/3144777/

theoderich
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Re: USA: "Space Force"

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DRDO showcased the Anti Satellite (ASAT) missile used in Mission Shakti. Maiden successful trial of ASAT was carried out on 27th March 2019. Mission Shakti, the test mission, was a major breakthrough in demonstrating the nation’s anti-satellite technology and precision strike capability. ASAT will play a critical role in providing necessary deterrence against rogue satellites as well as intercontinental ballistic missiles.
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theoderich
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Re: USA: "Space Force"

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This is what the Space Force will use to jam enemy satellites
Shrouded in secrecy, the Counter Communications System is the tool the U.S. Space Force will use to jam adversaries’ communications in a conflict.

“It’s a deployable system basically for counter communications. Think of it as a platform that various custom missions run on,” said Praveen Kurian, general manager of L3Harris’ space control division. “It doesn’t permanently damage [targets], right? You’re talking about reversibly denying communications, and then when you shut down your system, you’re back to being able to operate.”

America’s newest armed service got an updated version of the system — Block 10.2 — in March, but a leaner, more capable generation is already in the works.

When CCS Block 10.2 achieved initial operating capability March 9, the Space Force hailed the system as its first offensive weapon system; the first generation of the system was delivered to the military in 2004. The former Harris Corporation was a contributor to that system, said Kurian, and now L3Harris has been the primary contractor to the two major upgrades to the system since then — first, Block 10.1 and now Block 10.2.

Due to the secretive nature of CCS, it’s difficult to sort out the full extent and limitations of the technology. What is known is that CCS is a transportable electronic warfare system that can reversibly deny adversaries’ satellite communications. Space Force budget documents provide additional insight, noting “CCS provides expeditionary, deployable, reversible offensive space control (OCS) effects applicable across the full spectrum of conflict.”
With limited information on how CCS does what it does, it’s difficult to explain how 10.2 improves on its predecessors.

“The 10.2 system gives significantly expanded capability in terms of what it can run, what kind of missions it can run,” said Kurian, who added that both the 10.1 and 10.2 upgrades provided more transportability than the first-generation system, allowing them to be deployed where needed.

And L3Harris is already working on the next generation of the system, dubbed Meadowlands. On Jan. 24, the Air Force awarded the company $72 million to sustain the Space and Missile Systems Center’s ground-based electronic warfare systems portfolio and develop Meadowlands.


While there was no effort to physically shrink the system from 10.1 to 10.2, Meadowlands will significantly reduce the size and form factor of the system, said Kurian, though he couldn’t share details.

“(Meadowlands) will provide even more capability than the 10.2 system provides today,” he said.

However, Meadowlands is not meant to replace the 10.2 system. “Meadowlands is intended to deploy really alongside [10.2] just to provide even more additional capability,” Kurian said. “It will do what the 10.2 system does, plus more.”

Meadowlands is currently in development, with production expected to begin in fiscal 2021, said Kurian. According to the contract announcement, work is expected to be completed by Feb. 29, 2024.
https://www.c4isrnet.com/electronic-war ... atellites/


Counter Communications System Block 10.2 achieves IOC, ready for the warfighter (13. März 2020)

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February 2018
PE 1206421F: Counterspace Systems
A. Mission Description and Budget Item Justification

Acquisition Decision Memorandum (24 April 2009) directed all capabilities identified in the 4 October 2006 CCS Block 20, Joint Requirements Oversight Council (JROC) approved Capability Development Document (CDD) shall be accomplished as a Pre-planned Product Improvement Program (P3I) upgrades to the Counter Communications System (CCS) Block 10. On 11 April 2016, AFSPC A5/A8/A9 signed and updated ADM adding additional responsibility for CCS B10.3.

CCS provides expeditionary, deployable, reversible offensive space control (OCS) effects applicable across the full spectrum of conflict. It prevents adversary Satellite Communications (SATCOM) in Area of Responsibility (AOR) including Command & Control (C2), Early Warning and Propaganda, and hosts Rapid Reaction Capabilities in response to Urgent Needs. This program effort includes architecture engineering and studies, system hardware design and development, software design and integration, and testing and demonstration of capabilities to provide disruption of satellite communications signals.
https://www.dacis.com/budget/budget_pdf ... 1F_122.pdf

theoderich
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Re: USA: "Space Force"

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Russia tests ASAT-capable missile system
The most likely missile system fitting the description is a transporter erector launcher (TEL)-based version of the Nudol system.
https://www.janes.com/article/95586/rus ... ile-system





Russia tests direct-ascent anti-satellite missile
PETERSON AIR FORCE BASE, Colo., April 15, 2020 — U.S. Space Command is aware and tracking Russia’s direct-ascent anti-satellite (DA-ASAT) missile test April 15.
Russia’s missile system is capable of destroying satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO) and comes on the heels of Russia’s on-orbit testing the U.S. highlighted in February, namely COSMOS 2542 and COSMOS 2543. These satellites, which behaved similar to previous Russian satellites that exhibited characteristics of a space weapon, conducted maneuvers near a U.S. Government satellite that would be interpreted as irresponsible and potentially threatening in any other domain.

“This test is further proof of Russia’s hypocritical advocacy of outer space arms control proposals designed to restrict the capabilities of the United States while clearly having no intention of halting their counterspace weapons programs,” Raymond said. “Space is critical to all nations and our way of life. The demands on space systems continue in this time of crisis where global logistics, transportation and communication are key to defeating the COVID-19 pandemic.

“It is a shared interest and responsibility of all spacefaring nations to create safe, stable and operationally sustainable conditions for space activities, including commercial, civil and national security activities,” Raymond concluded.
https://www.spacecom.mil/MEDIA/NEWS-ART ... e-missile/



"Interessanter" Zugang, wenn man bedenkt, dass die US Navy vor zwölf Jahren einen defekten amerikanischen Spionagesatelliten mit einer SM-3 abgeschossen hat. Nur hat man diese Operation wenigstens angekündigt:
  • Navy Succeeds In Intercepting Non-Functioning Satellite (20. Februar 2008)

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    A network of land-, air-, sea- and spaced-based sensors confirms that the U.S. military intercepted a non-functioning National Reconnaissance Office satellite which was in its final orbits before entering the earth's atmosphere.

    At approximately 10:26 p.m. EST, Feb. 20, a U.S. Navy AEGIS warship, USS Lake Erie (CG-70), fired a single modified tactical Standard Missile-3 (SM-3) hitting the satellite approximately 133 nautical miles over the Pacific Ocean as it traveled in space at more than 17,000 mph. USS Decatur (DDG-73) and USS Russell (DDG-59) were also part of the task force.

    The objective was to rupture the fuel tank to dissipate the approximately 1,000 pounds of hydrazine, a hazardous fuel which could be harmful, before it entered into earth's atmosphere. Confirmation that the fuel tank has been fragmented should be available within 24 hours.

    Due to the relatively low altitude of the satellite at the time of the engagement, debris will begin to re-enter the earth's atmosphere immediately. Nearly all of the debris will burn up on reentry within 24-48 hours and the remaining debris should re-enter within 40 days.
    https://www.navy.mil/submit/display.asp?story_id=35114
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https://bmpd.livejournal.com/1608161.html

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Russia’s ASAT development takes aim at LEO assets
Current Russian destructive ASAT development focuses on DA-ASAT systems. Ground-based space tracking sensors such as Radars or optical telescopes can be used to identify satellites and generate their orbital parameters, translating this into initial target track data for an ASAT launch.

DA-ASAT systems are launched from a ground or airborne platform and take a direct path to an intercept point on the target satellite’s orbit, although a degree of manoeuvring capability to counter a target’s evasion attempts may be incorporated. Any manoeuvring capability would be a significant advance, as this is technologically difficult and costly in terms of fuel.

Examples of DA-ASAT missiles include China’s SC-19 and the US ASM-135. SC-19 is not a Chinese designator, but rather a US intelligence designator indicating that the missile was the 19th observed system first detected at Shuangchengzi in Gansu province.

SC-19 is a development of the DF-21(CSS-5) ballistic missile equipped with a kinetic kill vehicle, which was used to destroy the FY-1C Chinese weather satellite orbiting in LEO at 865 km on 22 January 2007. The ASM-135 ASAT missile completed a successful intercept test on 13 September 1985. Launched from an F-15, the missile destroyed the Solwind P78-1 solar physics satellite orbiting in LEO at 525 km, before development stopped in 1988.

The 2018 report Global Counterspace Capabilities: An Open Source Assessment , produced by the Secure World Foundation, noted that the reaction time of a satellite in LEO under threat by a DAASAT is limited to 8–15 minutes. To counter such an attack during this timeframe, the DA-ASAT launch must be detected and identified, the targeted satellite identified, and the satellite manoeuvred onto a new, safer orbital path if it can. However, satellite manoeuvring fuel is finite, meaning that only a limited number of orbital changes can be accomplished. This potentially places a satellite in a situation where it must risk destruction or move to a new orbital path that limits, or eliminates, future mobility.

CO-ASAT systems are placed in orbit, and over the course of several orbits reorient themselves into the orbital path of the target satellite before closing for intercept. Examples of CO-ASAT systems include the former operational Soviet ballistic missile-based Istrebitel Sputnikov (‘Satellite Fighter’) system, and the developmental ballistic missile-based Nayad (14F10) and Naryad-V (14F11) systems; none are currently operational.
Nudol system

The Nudol DA-ASAT system has been under development since at least 2011 and may form the mobile ASAT portion, or is possibly an offshoot, of the proposed A-235 anti-ballistic missile (ABM) system (RTTs-181M) – OTR (operational tactical rocket), codename Samolet-M – that has been under development since 1985. The A-235 is intended to replace the Moscow-area A-135 Amur (ABM-4A ‘Gazelle’/ABM-4B ‘Gorgon’, sometimes also designated ABM-3 ‘Gazelle’/ABM-4 ‘Gorgon’) ABM system, with various components including the 53T6M endoatmospheric interceptor, which is a modified 53T6 (ABM-4A ‘Gazelle’) from the A-135, currently undergoing testing.

The Nudol system is also referred to in the West as the PL-19. The PL- series designator indicates that the system was first identified by Western intelligence sources at Plesetsk Cosmodrome, and was the 19th such object identified at the site. At least five of the six known Nudol tests occurred at Plesetsk.

The first known open-source acknowledgement of the Nudol system in Russia came in 2010, when Russian electronics and engineering company JSC Avangard released its annual report. Among other areas, JSC Avangard is involved with composite and fibreglass component manufacturing, suggesting that the company may be responsible for producing launch canisters for the missile that arms the Nudol system.
https://www.janes.com/images/assets/591 ... assets.pdf


In diesem Bericht ist nichts zu finden, was auf ein System "Nudol" oder dgl. hindeutet:

http://ru.avangard.org/annual_report.html

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