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EDA-Studie zu EU-Verteidigungsbudgets / Pooling & Sharing

Wehrtechnik & Rüstung, Gemeinsame Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik
theoderich
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Re: EDA-Studie zu EU-Verteidigungsbudgets / Pooling & Sharin

Beitrag von theoderich » 31. Jul 2015, 11:27

Chef der Europäischen Verteidigungsagentur: "EU á la carte aufrüsten"

STANDARD: In einem Europa der Austeritätsprogramme und Budgetkürzungen sind Verteidigungsausgaben und deren Steigerung schwierig zu argumentieren. Wie überzeugen Sie Regierungen, dass diese – wie es der Europäische Rat 2013 beschlossen hat – mehr in ihre Armeen investieren sollen?

    Jorge Domecq: Es ist natürlich eine Priorität, ausreichend Finanzmittel für die Verteidigungsagenden zur Verfügung zu haben. Was mir aber noch viel wichtiger erscheint, ist, dass wir diese Mittel in Zukunft klüger einsetzen. Was bedeutet das? Es ist unbedingt erforderlich, besser zu kooperieren. Das bringt einerseits Einsparungen und andererseits mehr Interoperabilität. Wir müssen von der Situation wegkommen, dass die 28 EU-Mitgliedstaaten etwa die Hälfte der Mittel für Verteidigung ausgeben wie die Amerikaner und in der operativen Welt nur auf rund 15 Prozent des Outputs der Amerikaner kommen.

STANDARD: Wie genau wollen Sie dieses Verhältnis verbessern?

    Domecq: Die EU-Mitgliedstaaten müssen erstens kooperativ mehr in Verteidigungssysteme investieren. Und sie müssen zweitens mehr in Forschung und Technologie investieren. Der Trend, diese beiden Aspekte in den Wehretats zu vernachlässigen, muss umgekehrt werden.

STANDARD: Smart Defence, Pooling and Sharing, Capability Building – an Schlagworten hat es in der Debatte in den vergangenen Jahren nicht gefehlt, an konkreten Kooperationen schon. Wie sind die 28 Mitgliedstaaten davon zu überzeugen, von ihren nationalen Interessen abzurücken oder nationale Rüstungsunternehmen in Kooperationen einzubringen?

    Domecq: Als Agentur sind wir nicht so sehr in die ideologische Debatte darüber involviert, wie, wo und wann Fähigkeiten eingesetzt werden sollen. Wir stellen vielmehr sicher, dass diese Fähigkeiten vorhanden sind, falls sie im EU- oder Uno-Kontext oder im nationalen Umfeld gebraucht werden. Aus dieser Sicht: Pooling und Sharing ist eine langwierige Anstrengung, aber wir haben schon Ergebnisse erzielt. Beispiel Luftbetankung von Flugzeugen: Wir arbeiten mit den Niederlanden, Polen und Norwegen derzeit an einer multinationalen Truppe, die 2020 einsatzbereit sein wird. Das war übrigens eines der vier prioritären Projekte, die der Rat damals identifiziert hat. Anderes Beispiel: Munition. Wir haben fünf Armeen, die Carl-Gustav-Antipanzer-Munition verwenden. Wir haben deren Bedürfnisse gebündelt, sind zur Industrie gegangen, haben neue Verträge gemacht und den Markt komplett geändert. Beispiel Satellitenkommunikation: Österreich etwa ist bei einer Elf-Staaten-Gruppe dabei, wo einige über keine eigenen Satellitenkapazitäten verfügen, diese aber mitbenutzen können, falls sie gebraucht werden.

STANDARD: Zuletzt hat es Berichte über eine europäische Drohne gegeben. Auch das ist eine der Prioritäten des Rates. Wie steht es damit?

    Domecq: In diesem Fall geht es um die Entwicklung der nächsten Generation ferngesteuerter militärischer Drohnen. Italien, Deutschland und Frankreich werden darüber eine Machbarkeitsstudie angehen. Diese ist offen auch für andere Mitgliedstaaten. Erst wenn diese abgeschlossen ist, wird man sehen, ob und wie man bei diesem Programm weiter macht. Das Prinzip dabei ist, dass wir als Agentur sicherstellen, dass solche Projekte prinzipiell für alle offen sind, aber im Gegenzug auch nicht immer alle Mitgliedstaaten dabei sein müssen. Wir wollen auf einer À-la-carte-Basis vorankommen, die auf die Bedürfnisse der Mitgliedstaaten Rücksicht nimmt.

STANDARD: Auch von einer europäischen Luftwaffe war schon die Rede. Zukunftsmusik?

    Domecq: Wir haben das gemeinsame Transportkommando in Eindhoven. Sechs Staaten sind Mitglied, Polen wird demnächst dazukommen. Dadurch haben wir eine Flotte und echte Kapazitäten zur Verfügung. Wir sprechen derzeit von einer Liste von 200 Flugzeugen. Das kann in vielen anderen Bereichen – Logistik oder Sanitätseinheiten – wiederholt werden.

STANDARD: Österreich hat einen der niedrigsten Wehretats und gilt als Trittbrettfahrer in der EU. Was haben Sie denn hier angeregt?

    Domecq: Das Verteidigungsministerium wird mehr Mittel für Forschung und Technologie zur Verfügung stellen, das ist ermutigend. Denn das betrifft den Aufbau von Fähigkeiten und die Beteiligung der Industrie.


Stellt sich die Frage, wie "mehr Mittel" in diesem Bereich zu bewerten sind? Denn Österreich investiert seit Jahren nur verschwindend geringe Summen in technologische Weiterentwicklung. Laut dem EDA Defence Data Portal beliefen sich Österreichs Ausgaben im Bereich R&T für das Jahr 2013 auf lächerlich geringe 1 Mio. EUR - 0,04 % der Gesamtausgaben für das Bundesheer:


Selbst Slowenien investiert geringfügig mehr (0,07 % der Gesamtausgaben für das Militär). Kroatien liegt ex aequo mit uns. Unterboten wird Österreich nur von Portugal, Luxemburg, Estland, Lettland, Litauen, der Slowakei, Ungarn und Bulgarien, wo teilweise gar nichts für diesen Bereich aufgewendet wird.

theoderich
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Re: EDA-Studie zu EU-Verteidigungsbudgets / Pooling & Sharin

Beitrag von theoderich » 27. Sep 2015, 11:53

'Further, Deeper' EU Cooperation Urged

European Union member states need to greatly expand cooperation to meet "unprecedented" defense and security threats to Europe, said Gen. Pierre de Villiers, France's chief of the Defense Staff.

Future cooperation, he argued, might include sharing the costs of "employment and support," together with design, development and industrialization costs. Pooling or sharing in the field of operations, as well individual or collective training, are additional examples, he said.

"I am also thinking of cooperation on projects linked to in-flight refueling," said de Villiers, who has been in his post since February 2014. He made his comments to European Defence Matters, the in-house journal of the EU's European Defence Agency (EDA).

His remarks followed a damning EDA report published in March about the decline in defense expenditure by EU member states. The Brussels-based EDA says defense spending has been "declining steadily," and falling by more than €32 billion (US $35.7 billion), or about 15 percent, from 2006 to 2013.

The EDA said that between 2012 and 2013, collaborative equipment procurement decreased by 20.7 percent to €4.75 billion, its lowest level since 2006.

Seizing on current spending trends, de Villiers said: "Budgetary difficulties make it necessary to find new solutions in order to fill the gaps in budgetary programming."

This "serious and quite unprecedented" challenge requires increased cooperation among EU member states, he said.

"We have to find pragmatic solutions which enable us to meet operational requirements at the lowest possible cost," De Villiers, France's top military officer, said. "The starting point of efficient cooperation is sharing a common vision, but I can see advantages in conducting programs in cooperation with partners."

One example of existing cooperation, he said, is the European Satellite Communication Procurement Cell, also known as the EU SATCOM Market.

Closer cooperation, he said, is possible in almost every domain "except some 'niche capabilities' linked to the heart of our operational or technological sovereignty."

"Cooperation has to be seriously considered and must be systematically sought for all capabilities which are essential but which cannot be obtained at national level," he told European Defence Matters.

Over the past decade, France initially sought defense partners inside the EU but became frustrated with Germany's more cautious view of military power. However, Paris has been forging closer military and industrial ties with London since the two sides signed a defense cooperation treaty in 2010.

That cooperation has included Britain providing airlift and battlefield surveillance capabilities for French troops fighting in Mali, while France has sent maritime patrol aircraft to Scotland to hunt suspected Russian submarines close to a UK nuclear missile submarine base.

De Villier's call is echoed by the EU high representative for foreign affairs and security policy, Federica Mogherini, who said a more "cooperative approach" is needed to reverse a trend that has seen spending in defense research and technology fall by almost 30 percent in recent years.

However, defense is still a closely guarded competence of EU member states and any moves toward closer cooperation at the EU level will spark resistance in some quarters.

"When the EU says 'deeper cooperation,' what they actually mean is a wholesale takeover of yet another aspect of our sovereignty," said Mike Hooken, a member of the European Parliament and defense spokesman for the UK Independence Party. "The first duty of government in the UK is the defense of the realm. To hand any of our military capability to an unelected, dictatorial body like the EU is little short of treason.

"Having seen what a total mess the EU has made of both the euro and the immigration policies, I have very grave concerns about their ability to mount any form of military operation, never mind manage an army and defend the UK against a growing range of threats."


theoderich
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Re: EDA-Studie zu EU-Verteidigungsbudgets / Pooling & Sharin

Beitrag von theoderich » 02. Jan 2016, 16:46

OSBORNE Tony: New UAS, Tanker Capabilities Coming To Netherlands , in: Aviation Week & Space Technology, 12/7/2015

"The damage to the whole of the Dutch armed forces through years of cutbacks is not undone within a few years of increasing budgets," Gen. Alexander Schnitger, commander of the RNLAF, tells Aviation Week.

He and other commanders have decided to use the budget boost announced in March to reinforce staffing, increase spare parts levels and reduce maintenance turnaround times in order to make better use of existing equipment.

"With follow-on money in the future budget, we will start growing again in real terms," says Schnitger.

The Netherlands is taking the lead in the European tanker program, initially launched by the European Defense Agency two years ago. It will see as many as eight Airbus A330-200 Multi-Role Tanker Transports (MRTT) flying for European air forces. Only three aircraft are planned at the moment.

So far, four nations--Germany, the Netherlands, Norway and Poland--have signed up to the program, but Belgium will purchase flying hours. The more countries that join the pool, the more aircraft will be made available.

The Netherlands, as a member of the European Air Transport Command, is taking the lead because it is the most experienced of the four countries in aerial refueling operations; it flies a pair of Douglas KDC-10s. The pending A330s will be based at Eindhoven air base, the RNLAF's main air transport hub, and will be allocated via the European Air Transport Command. The multinational command pools and shares the military transport aircraft of seven European nations.

"The KDC-10s have been used very hard for a long time, so we need to replace them in 2020," says Schnitger. "And by turning that capability into a European one, we get more bang for the buck."

Contracts for the first A330s are expected next summer.

theoderich
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Re: EDA-Studie zu EU-Verteidigungsbudgets / Pooling & Sharin

Beitrag von theoderich » 09. Feb 2016, 21:20

FIORENZA Nick: European Defense Expenditures Fall Further , in: Aviation Week & Space Technology, 00052175, 1/4/2016)

Planned increases in defense spending in European Union (EU) nations, including the U.K., France and Germany, are really only relative to a regional downward trend in the preceding six years.

The most recent EU-wide figures-- reported by the European Defense Agency (EDA) in March--showed that defense expenditures fell in 2013 for the seventh year running by 0.9% or €1.7 billion ($1.8 billion) compared to 2012, to a total of €186 billion. The number represents 1.45% of gross domestic product (GDP) and 2.97% of total government spending, the lowest since 2006.

EDA officials also are worried about the downward trend in spending on European and non-European collaborative defense equipment procurement by the member states that provided data. Between 2012 and 2013, reported collaborative equipment procurement spending fell 20.7% to €4.75 billion, the lowest level since 2006. Collaborative defense spending accounted for 15.9% of total defense equipment procurement, leading the EDA to conclude that more than 84% was spent nationally.

Defense equipment procurement and investment in research and development accounted for 20.1% of total defense spending, just above the 20% voluntary benchmark for defense investment set by the EDA in 2007. The R&D share of defense spending rose slightly to 1.12%, well below the voluntary benchmark of 2%.

The EDA, however, reports progress in four joint projects endorsed at the European Council meeting of EU leaders in December 2013: air-to-air refueling (AAR), cyberdefense, remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS) and governmental satellite communications (satcom).

European Air-to-Air Refueling Training (EART) events have been held annually, and the contract on the joint acquisition of AAR aircraft is expected to be signed in the first half of 2016, with delivery of the first aircraft planned for 2019 for an initial operating capability in 2020 and full operating capability in 2021.

In other details from the EDA's March 2015 report based on statistics as of the end of 2013: Total spending on collaborative defense research and technology (R&T) fell by 0.9% to €203 million, representing 9.7% of total defense R&T. The remaining 90.3% was national expenditure. Reported European collaborative defense R&T expenditure increased by 21.4% between 2012 and 2013 to €168 million, representing 82.5% of total collaborative defense spending but still a record low.

For the seventh year running, 2013 saw EU members reduce the number of military and civilian personnel. Total personnel levels were cut by 24% to nearly 600,000 between 2006 and 2013, broken down into 500,000 soldiers (a 26% reduction) and nearly 80,000 civilians (a 16% reduction). EDA countries reduced their militaries by 0.9%, to around 1.4 million and civilians by 3.6% to 407,245. Despite the personnel cuts, the upward trend in defense investment per soldier since 2006 was reversed in 2013, falling 2.9% to €26,122 from 2012's €26,906.

Despite the drawdown in Afghanistan, the average number of troops deployed outside EU territory increased for the first time since 2008, by 17.2% to an average of 58,086 troops on a continuous basis throughout 2013.

theoderich
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Re: EDA-Studie zu EU-Verteidigungsbudgets / Pooling & Sharin

Beitrag von theoderich » 02. Jun 2016, 14:31


theoderich
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Re: EDA-Studie zu EU-Verteidigungsbudgets / Pooling & Sharin

Beitrag von theoderich » 29. Jul 2016, 09:59

Netherlands, Luxembourg Pitch In Two Airbus Tankers For NATO Fleet

A deal to equip NATO with a fleet of A330 MRTT air-to-air refueling aircraft has been signed by Airbus and OCCAR, the European organization that manages cooperative weapons programs.

Two of the multi-role aircraft have been purchased by the Netherlands and Luxembourg in what is hoped will become a pooling and sharing arrangement, which would also include Belgium, Germany, Norway and Poland.

The Dutch Ministry of Defence (MoD), which is largely bankrolling the initial procurement of aircraft, informed the Parliament in The Hague on July 28 that it had signed a memorandum of understanding with Luxembourg to proceed with the procurement of the two aircraft.

At the same time, OCCAR — operating on behalf of the NATO Support & Procurement Agency — struck a deal with Airbus Defence and Space for the delivery of two aircraft with options for up to six more if other nations join the Multinational MRTT Fleet (MMF) program.

The first two aircraft have been purchased by the Netherlands and Luxembourg but will be the property of NATO.

Poland, Norway and the Netherlands announced in December 2014 they were opening negotiations with Airbus to acquire four A330 aircraft. But to date only the Netherlands among the mainstream military nations interested in the capability has signed up.

A European Defence Agency spokesman said that while the Dutch were now ready to sign, the other nations were not at that stage yet.

“We expect more positive news around October or November [on other nations signing up],”
he said.

Until the MMF is expanded, the Netherlands and Luxembourg, which doesn't have an air force, will have exclusive user rights, the Dutch MoD said.

The aircraft will be stationed at the Dutch base at Eindoven, and delivery will begin in 2020 — in parallel with the Royal Dutch Air Force decommissioning the two KDC-10 tankers it presently has in service.

The new multi-role aircraft will also help ease capability shortages in cargo lift and troop transport in Europe.

A study is to be carried out to see whether the European Air Transport Command (EATC), which is also stationed at Eindoven, would supervise the operations of the MRTT aircraft, the Dutch ministry said.



Nederland en Luxemburg kopen samen tankvliegtuigen

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Norway, Poland and The Netherlands to Acquire Shared Aerial Refueling Capability (28. Dezember 2014)


theoderich
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Re: EDA-Studie zu EU-Verteidigungsbudgets / Pooling & Sharin

Beitrag von theoderich » 18. Apr 2017, 18:26

Exercice Vertigo du Bataillon léger 12/13Li

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Du 27 mars au 6 avril, la 1ère Compagnie du 12 de Ligne Prince Léopold - 13 de Ligne participe à l’exercice Vertigo, une période d'entraînement hivernal organisée au camp Seetaler Alpen en Autriche. Cette compagnie est flanquée d’un détachement Sniper et d'une section du 1er Régiment de Tirailleurs français (1RTir).

Les conditions climatiques étant particulièrement printanière cette année, les objectifs de cet entraînement fonctionnel ont dû être revus : apprentissage du ski et du ski militaire, déplacement en conditions hivernales (skis et raquettes), progression en montagne, tirs avec dévers négatif, via cordata, via ferrata et mises en œuvre de liaisons radio longue distance.


"Conditions ... particulièrement printanière" - schön wär's.

theoderich
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Re: EDA-Studie zu EU-Verteidigungsbudgets / Pooling & Sharin

Beitrag von theoderich » 15. Mai 2017, 13:47

Cyber Ranges: EDA’s First Ever Cyber Defence Pooling & Sharing Project Launched By 11 Member States

On May 5th, the Project Arrangement (PA) for the first ever Cyber Defence Pooling & Sharing Project was signed by all eleven contributing Member States. The Cyber Ranges Federation Project brings together Austria, Belgium, Germany, Estonia, Greece, Finland, Ireland, Latvia, the Netherlands, Portugal and Sweden under the co-lead of the Netherlands, Finland and Greece. The project originates from an EDA initiative and will be carried out under the EU pooling & sharing agenda with support from EDA. The core aims of the project include: increasing the availability of existing and emerging cyber range facilities; increasing the occupation rate and efficiency of cyber ranges and platforms; mainstream and improve cyber defence training, exercises and testing at European level. Under this PA, the objectives will be achieved in a spiral approach over the next 36 months.


theoderich
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Re: EDA-Studie zu EU-Verteidigungsbudgets / Pooling & Sharin

Beitrag von theoderich » 22. Jun 2017, 10:07

Haushaltsausschuss genehmigt Rüstungsprojekte

A330 MRTT Tankflugzeuge

Die Bundeswehr will in Zusammenarbeit mit den Niederlanden, Luxemburg und Norwegen insgesamt sieben Tankflugzeuge vom Typ A330 MRTT beschaffen. Deutschland beteiligt sich mit rund 1,4 Milliarden Euro, zwei Drittel der Gesamtkosten, an dem Projekt für die Tankflugzeug-Flotte der NATO. Ihre Auslieferung ist im Zeitraum 2021 bis 2023 geplant. Nach den derzeitigen Planungen sollen drei Maschinen von Köln/Wahn und vier vom niederländischen Eindhoven aus operieren.



theoderich
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Re: EDA-Studie zu EU-Verteidigungsbudgets / Pooling & Sharin

Beitrag von theoderich » 27. Sep 2017, 22:26

Multi-Role Tanker Transport Fleet expands significantly

In a signing ceremony on 25 September 2017, the current Multinational Multi-Role Tanker Transport Fleet (MMF) contract was amended to include both Germany and Norway as participants to the MMF project along with the Netherlands and Luxembourg. Mr. Arturo Alfonso-Meiriño, OCCAR Director, Mr. Bernhard Brenner, Airbus Defence & Space Executive Vice President Marketing and Sales, and Mr. Didier Plantecoste, Airbus Defence & Space Head of Tanker Programmes and Derivatives officially signed the amendment at OCCAR-EA offices in Bonn, Germany.

This amendment exercises a contract option to significantly increase the scope of the project from the two A330 MRTT aircraft initially ordered to seven aircraft in total, including also options for up to four additional aircraft (potential increase to 11 aircraft in total).

The MMF project was initiated by the European Defence Agency (EDA) in 2012 and OCCAR manages the acquisition as the NATO Support and Procurement Agency’s Contract Executing Agent. The acquisition phase was launched in July 2016 with the signing of the original contract and includes the first two years of support. Following the acquisition phase, NSPA will be responsible for the complete life-cycle management of the fleet.

The Programme is funded by the four participants to the MMF project who will have the exclusive right to use these NATO-owned aircraft which will operate in a pooling arrangement. The aircraft will be configured for inflight refuelling, the transport of passengers (including VIPs) and cargo as well as for medical evacuation flights. The aircraft will be operated by a multinational unit from the Main Operating Base (MOB) in Eindhoven (Netherlands) and Forward Operating Base (FOB) in Cologne (Germany).

The delivery of the seven A330 MRTT aircraft currently on contract from Airbus Defence and Space’s tanker conversion line at Getafe near Madrid is expected between 2020 and 2022.


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